July Learn how and when to remove this template message. It was estimated that from 20 to 50 women had become members of the society. More than were taken prisoner. Japan had been friendly to the Filipinos since the Spanish colonial era.
He initiated members in that province as well as Bulacan, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija. Most of the Katipuneros were plebeian although several wealthy patriots joined the society and submitted themselves to the leadership of Bonifacio.
Katipunero plural, mga Katipunero is the demonym of a male member of the Katipunan. Katipunera plural, mga Katipunera refers to female members. It was the original plan of Bonifacio to increase the membership of the Katipunan by means of sistemang patatsulok or triangle system. He formed his first triangle with his two comrades, Teodoro Plata and Ladislao Diwa.
Each of them re-instituted Katipunan thoughts into another two new converts. The founder of the triangle knew the other two members, but the latter did not know each other. In December the system was abolished after proving it to be clumsy and complicated. When the Katipuneros had expanded to more than a hundred members, Bonifacio divided the members into three grades: Associate which is the lowest rank, the Kawal soldier , and the Bayani Hero or Patriot.
In the meeting of the society, Katipon wore a black hood with a triangle of white ribbon having the letters " Z. Kawal wore a green hood with a triangle having white lines and the letters " Z. Bayani Hero wore a red mask and a sash with green borders, symbolizing courage and hope. The front of the mask had white borders that formed a triangle with three K s arranged as if occupying the angles of a triangle within a triangle, and with the letters " Z.
Another password was Rizal. Countersigns enabled members to recognize one another on the street. A member meeting another member placed the palm of his right hand on his breast and, as he passed the other member, he closed the hands to bring the right index finger and thumb together. Katipon could graduate to Kawal class by bringing several new members into the society. A Kawal could become a Bayani upon being elected an officer of the society. Any person who wished to join the Katipunan was subjected to certain initiation rites, resembling those of Masonic rites , to test his courage, patriotism, and loyalty.
The neophyte was first blindfolded and then led into a dimly lighted room with black curtains where his folded cloth was removed from his eyes. An admonition, in Tagalog, was posted at the entrance to the room:.
Inside the candle-lit room, they would be brought to a table adorned with a skull and a bolo. There, they would condemn the abuses of the Spanish government and vow to fight colonial oppression: In what condition did the Spaniards find the Tagalog land when they came?
What hopes do they have for the future? During Bonifacio's time, all of the Filipino people are referred collectively by the Katipunan as Tagalog s, while Philippines is Katagalugan. If the neophyte persisted, he was presented to the assembly of the brethren, who subjected him to various ordeals such as blindfolding him and making him shoot a supposedly a revolver at a person, or forcing him to jump over a supposedly hot flame.
After the ordeals came to final rite—the pacto de sangre or blood compact —in which the neophyte signed the following oath with the blood taken from his arm:. He was then accepted as a full-pledged member, with a symbolic name by which he was known within Katipunan circles.
At first, Katipunan was purely a patriotic society for men. Owing to the growing suspicion of the women regarding nocturnal absences of their husbands, the reduction of their monthly earnings and "long hours of work", Bonifacio had to bring them into the realms of the KKK.
A section for women was established in the society: It was estimated that from 20 to 50 women had become members of the society. The women rendered valuable services to the Katipunan. Whenever the Katipunan held sessions in a certain house, they usually made merry, singing and dancing with some of the men in the living room so that the civil guard were led that there was nothing but a harmless social party within.
Though women are considered to be members of the Katipunan, information regarding the women's section were scarce and sometimes conflicting.
Pío Valenzuela 's notion that women-members did not elect officers, hence there is no room for president. Among the foreign-born Katipuneros were: During Katipunan's existence, literature flourished through prominent writers of the Katipunan: Andrés Bonifacio , Emilio Jacinto and Dr.
Each of the three's works were stirring literature of patriotism and are aimed to spread the revolutionary thoughts and ideals of the society. It was first published March even though its masthead was dated January In , the Katipunan bought an old hand-press with the money generously donated by two Visayan co-patriots Francisco del Castillo and Candido Iban—who returned to the country after working as shell and pearl divers in Australia and had some money from a lottery win.
The name Kalayaan was suggested by Dr. Pío Valenzuela , which was agreed both by Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto. To fool the Spanish authorities, the Kalayaan was also decided to carry a false masthead stating that it was being printed in Yokohama, Japan. That very same month, January , the publication of Kalayaan began. Valenzuela expected to complete it by the end of the month and so it was dated as such.
When Valenzuela was appointed the physician-general of the Katipunan, he passed on his editorial duties to Jacinto. Jacinto edited the articles after his pre-law classes in University of Santo Tomas. Since the press was in the old orthography and not in the new " Germanized " alphabet, as called by the Spaniards, there were no Tagalog letters such as "k", "w", "h" and "y". To solve this problem, Jacinto obliged his mother, Josefa Dizon, to buy typefaces that resembled such letters.
According to Valenzuela, the printing process was so laborious that setting eight pages required two months to complete. In March , the first copies of the January issue were secretly circulated with about 2, copies, according to Valenzuela. The first issue contained a supposed editorial done by del Pilar, which, in fact, were done by Jacinto himself. Surprised by this initial success, Jacinto decided to print a second issue that would contain nothing but his works.
In August , the second issue was prepared. It was during this time that Spanish authorities began to grow wary of anti-government activities and, suspecting the existence of a subversive periodical in circulation see below , raided the place where Kalayaan was being printed, at No. Therefore, Spanish authorities never found any evidence of the Kalayaan. The teachings of the Katipunan were embodied in a document entitled Kartilya ng Katipunan ,  a pamphlet printed in Tagalog language.
Copies of which were distributed among the members of the society. Kartilya was written by Emilio Jacinto , and later revised by Emilio Aguinaldo. The revised version consists of thirteen teachings though some sources, such as the one provided by Philippine Centennial Commission , list only twelve . The term kartilya was derived from Spanish cartilla , which was a primer for grade school students before going to school at that time. According to Filipino writer and historian Hermenegildo Flores , the official language of the Katipunan is Tagalog , and uses an alphabet nearly similar to Spanish alphabet but has different meaning and the way it was read was changed.
Diacritics were added, to emphasize the existence of ng and mga on Tagalog orthography. The following is an excerpt from Flores' Kartilyang Makabayan: José Rizal to Dapitan ,  Katipunan was discovered. In a secret meeting of the Katipunan by a small creek named Bitukang Manok later known as Parian Creek, now nearly extinct near Pasig on May 4, , Bonifacio and his councilors decided to seek the advice of Rizal regarding a decision to revolt.
Pío Valenzuela as the Katipunan's emissary to Dapitan. Valenzuela arrived in Dapitan on June 21, , where Rizal welcomed him. After supper, Valenzuela told him his real purpose and the necessity of securing Rizal's support. Iya'y makasasama sa bayang Pilipino! That will harm the Filipino nation!
Rizal objected to Bonifacio's audacious plan to plunge the country into a bloody revolution. He believed it was premature for two reasons: Because of this notion, Valenzuela made another proposal to Rizal: Rizal disapproved of this plan, because he had given his word of honor to the Spanish authorities, and he did not want to break it.
When Valenzuela returned to Manila and informed the Katipunan of his failure to secure Rizal's sanction.
Bonifacio, furious, warned Valenzuela not to tell anyone of Rizal's refusal to support the impending uprising. However, Valenzuela had already spread the word, so that much fund proposals to the society were canceled. At his trial , Rizal denied that he knew Valenzuela, saying only that he met him first at Dapitan and that he considered him a good friend because of what Valenzuela showed to him and his appreciation of medical tools Valenzuela gave to him.
He also said that this was the last time they met. Despite Rizal's rejection of an armed revolution, Bonifacio continued to plan for an armed conflict with Spain. The Katipunan cast its eyes on Japan, which loomed then as the probable champion of Asian liberties against Western oppression at the time.
In May , after Valenzuela's visit to Rizal, a delegation of Katipunan members, headed by Jacinto and Bonifacio, conferred with a visiting Japanese naval officer and captain of a Japanese ship, named Kongo , and the Japanese consul at a Japanese bazaar in Manila. After the usual exchange of courtesies, Jacinto submitted the Katipunan memorial for the Emperor of Japan in which the Filipinos prayed for Japanese aid in their projected revolution, "so that the light of liberty that illuminates Japan may also shed its rays over the Philippines.
It was with good reason that the Katipunan solicited Japan's aid and alliance. Japan had been friendly to the Filipinos since the Spanish colonial era. Many Filipinos who had fled from Spanish persecution had been welcomed there and given full protection of Japanese laws. Bonifacio tried to purchase arms and ammunition from Japan, but failed due to lack of funds and the uncovering of the Katipunan, José Dizon was part of the committee that the Katipunan formed to secure arms from Japan with the connivance of the Japanese ship captain.
Three months later, however, the Katipunan was uncovered and Dizon was among the hundreds who were arrested for rebellion. As the Katipunan was busy preparing for the revolt, various denunciations regarding its existence reached the Spanish authorities. On July 5, , Manuél Sityar, a Spanish lieutenant of the Guardia Civíl stationed at Pasig , reported to Governor-General Ramón Blanco the mysterious activities of certain natives who had been gathering arms and recruiting men for some unknown purposes.
The Katipunan was finally discovered by the Spanish authorities six days after Fr. On early August , Teodoro Patiño and Apolonio de la Cruz, both working for the Diario de Manila printing press leading newspaper during those times had undergone misunderstanding regarding wages.
De la Cruz tried to blame Patiño for the loss of the printing supplies that were used for the printing of Kalayaan. In retaliation, Patiño revealed the secrets of the society to his sister, Honoria Patiño, an inmate nun at the Mandaluyong Orphanage. That afternoon, on August 19, , Honoria grew shocked and very upset to the revelation. Honoria told everything she heard from her brother. Controlled by his fear of Hell , Patiño went to Fr.
Gíl, an Augustinian parish curate of the Tondo convent. Though he is willed to tell anything about the Katipunan, Patiño confessed that a lithographic stone was hidden in the press room of the Diario de Manila , which was used by the society for printing receipts.
He also said that aside from the lithographic stone, there were also documents of membership that uses member's blood for signing hidden, together with a picture of Dr. José Rizal and several daggers that was made for the Katipunero -employees of the newspaper. Alarmed by the stunning truth of existence of a secret society, Fr. Gíl, accompanied by local Spanish authorities, searched the printing office of Diario de Manila and found the incriminating evidence. Gíl rushed to Governor-General Blanco to denounce the revolutionary plot of the Katipunan.
Patiño's alleged betrayal has become the standard version of how the revolution broke out in In the s, however, the Philippine National Library commissioned a group of former Katipuneros to confirm the truth of the story. José Turiano Santiago , Bonifacio's close friend who was expelled in , denied the story. He claimed that Bonifacio himself ordered Patiño to divulge the society's existence to hasten the Philippine revolution and preempt any objection from members.
Historian Teodoro Agoncillo gives a differing version of events, writing that Patiño revealed the secrets of the society to his sister, Honoria, following on a misunderstanding with de la Cruz, another society member who worked with him in the Spanish-owned Diario de Manila periodical.
Honoria, an orphanage inmate, was upset at the news and informed Sor Teresa, the orphanage madre portera , who suggested that Patiño tell all to Fr. On August 19, Patiño told Fr. Gíl what he knew of the secret society. Gíl and the owner of the Diario de Manila searched the printing shop, discovering the lithographic stone used to print Katipunan receipts.
After this discovery, the locker of Policarpio Turla, whose signature appeared on the receipts, was forced open and found to contain a dagger, the rules of the society, and other pertinent documents.
These were turned over to the Guardia Civíl, leading to the arrest and conviction on charges of illegal association and treason of some prominent men. In another version, the existence of the Katipunan became known to the authorities through Patiño, who revealed it to the general manager, La Font. When the Katipunan leaders learned of the arrests, Bonifacio called an assembly of all provincial councils to decide the start of the armed uprising.
The meeting was held at the house of Apolonio Samson at a place called Kangkong in Balintawak. About 1, Katipuneros attended the meeting but they were not able to settle the issue.
They met again at another place in Balintawak the following day. Historians are still debating whether this event took place at the yard of Melchora Aquino or at the house of her son Juan Ramos. The meeting took place either on August 23 or August The Katipuneros also agreed to attack Manila on August But Spanish civil guards discovered the meeting and the first battle occurred with the Battle of Pasong Tamo.
While the Katipunan initially had the upper hand, the Spanish civil guards turned the fight around. Bonifacio and his men retreated toward Marikina via Balara now in Quezon City.
They then proceeded to San Mateo in the province now called Rizal and took the town. The Spanish, however, regained it three days later. After regrouping, the Katipuneros decided not to attack Manila directly but agreed to take the Spanish powder magazine and garrison at San Juan. About Katipuneros were killed in the battle, but the Katipunan had to withdraw upon the arrival of Spanish reinforcements.
More than were taken prisoner. In the afternoon of the same day, the Spanish Gov. The Philippine Revolution had begun. In Bulacan, the Bulacan Revolutionary Movement were attacked by the strongest artillery forces ever converged in the capital town of Bulacan.
This subsequently led to the Battle of San Rafael, where Gen. Anacleto Enriquez and his men were surrounded and attacked in the Church of San Rafael. Pandi, Bulacan played a vital and historical role in the fight for Philippine independence.
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