Kovil or koil kuil in Indonesian are used to refer Indian Hindu temples. Hindu Islands in Indonesia.
Balinese Hinduism is the continuation of Javanese Hindu Dharmic tradition developed in Java between the 8th to 15th century. After Islam toppled Hinduism in Java circa 15th century, the remnants of this ancient Indonesian Hinduism are confined in Bali. Balinese Hinduism incorporate native Austronesian and Hindu worship of ancestors batara-s in Balinese from Sanskrit pitr-s next to the general ideas from Hinduism of Vedic deities , terms and rituals imported from India.
In Bali, a Pura Balinese temple is designed as an open-air worship place within a walled compound. The compound walls have a series of intricately decorated gates without doors for the devotee to enter. The design, plan and layout of the holy pura follows a square layout. Today, Balinese Hindus are concentrated in Bali island and some other cities in Indonesia. In Bali, Hindu Balinese temples Pura can be found quite easily, since they are the majority in the island. Outside Bali, they can be found too but not too many, for mostly these temples were followed the migration and only to accommodate Balinese people outside Bali, such as Balinese temples in Greater Jakarta.
Kovil or koil kuil in Indonesian are used to refer Indian Hindu temples. Because of the influx of Indian immigrants into Indonesia back in the 19th century, there are numbers of Indian-style temples erected in Indonesian cities, especially in Medan and Jakarta. The Indian Hindu temples in Indonesia followed closely the design, style, layout and architecture commonly found in India and neighboring Malaysia and Singapore.
Tamil Hindus are most concentrated in Medan , North Sumatra. Punjabis are mostly Sikh and Hindu. Most of them mixed these religions and some of them can speak Punjabi. Hindi and Sindhi are concentrated in Jakarta and usually open textile and garment business. There are around 12 Sikh temples in Indonesia. Compared to Indian Hindu temples, there are relatively few Hindu temples of Indonesian architecture outside the country.
They are as follows:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Candi Prambanan - the largest Hindu temples complex uncovered so far in Indonesia; it is also known as Loro Jonggrang, and it includes temples; the three central temples have intricate carvings on its walls to pictorially describe all major events from the Hindu epic Ramayana. Candi Ijo Candi Barong Candi Sambisari - located in village of Purwomartani Kalasan , this temple is located below ground level, and is a perfect square of The large linga and yoni inside the temple is made of andesite stone; the temple faces west and the yoni inside the temple faces north.
The reliefs in the wall are well preserved and intricate. The temple is surrounded by a grid of 8 lingas in a precise symmetric arrangement. There is evidence that nearby farm fields are on top of walls and parts of this temple yet to be unearthed.
Candi Kedulan Candi Gebang Candi Kimpulan Candi Gedong Songo - built in the early 8th century, on southern slopes of Gunung Ungaran overlooking central Java, by Wangsa Sanjaya dynasty Candi Selogriyo - built in the 8th century, on slopes of Mount Sumbing overlooking rice terraces of Java Candi Gunung Wukir - built before AD, dedicated to God Siwa, famous for the cangaal inscription discovered in one of its wells of secondary temple. It is located in Semin village Salam. The temple's center still has yoni , but the linga is missing.
Candi Morangan - built in the 9th century CE, with Siva's linga-yoni, has delicate carvings of tangled lovers and vegetation motifs on andesite stones; the temple is sometimes called fragrance-exuding temple Candi Gunung Sari - located in village of Gulon Muntilan , this is a Siva temple with barong relief suggesting a syncretic fusion of Hindu and pre-Hindu Javanese ideas Candi Merak - a 10th-century Hindu temple, located east of Jogjakarta, like many other temples in Java has one main temple and three secondary temples with gupolo ; the wall is carved with reliefs of Siwa's wife Durga, turtle, flowers and birds.
Hinduism portal Buddhism portal. The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. Potential for Filling World Heritage Gaps 1. Candi, space and landscape: Asymmetrical Temple Sites of Hindu Candi. The temples of Java. Balinese Festival Finds Home in Germany". Retrieved 18 July Other sources of religious information include the Universal Hindu Puranas and the Itihasa mainly Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
The epics Mahabharata and Ramayana became enduring traditions among Indonesian believers, expressed in shadow puppet wayang and dance performances.
Bhakti marga has the largest following in Bali. Balinese Hinduism is an amalgamation of Indian religions and indigenous animist customs that existed in Indonesian archipelago before the arrival of Islam and later Dutch colonialism. As in India, Hinduism in Bali grew with flexibility, featuring a diverse way of life. It includes many of the Indian spiritual ideas, cherishes legends and myths of Indian Puranas and Hindu Epics, as well as expresses its traditions through unique set of festivals and customs associated with a myriad of hyangs - the local and ancestral spirits, as well as forms of animal sacrifice that are not common in India.
The Balinese temple is called Pura. These temples are designed on square Hindu temple plan, as an open air worship place within enclosed walls, connected with series of intricately decorated gates to reach its compounds. Some house temples are associated with the family house compound also called banjar in Bali , others are associated with rice fields, and still others with key geographic sites. In rural highlands of Bali, banua or wanwa , forest domain temples in each desa village are common.
The temple design similarly amalgamate architectural principles in Hindu temples of India and regional ideas. Each individual has a family deity, called Kula dewa, who resides in the temple called the family temple that the individual and his family patronize. Balinese Hindu follow a day calendar based on rice crop and lunar cycles , and each temple celebrates its anniversary once every days.
Each temple anniversary, as well as festivals and family events such as wedding include flowers, offerings, towering bamboos with decoration at the end and a procession.
These are celebrated by the community with prayers and feast. Some traditions, in contrast, involve animist rituals such as caru animal blood sacrifice such as Tabuh Rah lethal cockfighting or killing of an animal to appease buta kala spirits of the earth - however, the animal sacrifices are conducted outside the premises of a temple.
Dance, music, colorful ceremonial dresses and other arts are a notable feature of religious expression among Balinese Hindus. As in India, these expressions celebrate various mudra to express ideas, grace, decorum and culture.
Various stories are expressed. For example, one involves a battle between the mythical characters Rangda the witch representing adharma, something like disorder and Barong the protective spirit represented with a lion mask representing dharma , in which performers fall into a trance, the good attempts to conquer evil, the dancers express the idea that good and evil exists within each individual, and that conquering evil implies ejecting evil from oneself.
The dance-drama regularly ends undecided, neither side winning, because the primary purpose is to restore balance and recognize that the battle between dharma and adharma good and evil is within each person and a never ending one. Rituals of the life cycle are also important occasions for religious expression and artistic display.
Ceremonies at puberty, marriage, and, most notably, cremation at death provide opportunities for Balinese to communicate their ideas about community, status, and the afterlife. Scholars   dispute the degree and nature of social stratification in medieval and contemporary Balinese Hindu society.
The social structure consisted of catur wangsa four varnas - brahmana priests , satriya or "Deva" warriors , waisya merchants , and sudra farmers, artisans, commoners. The wangsa - termed castes by some accounts, classes by other accounts - were functional, not hierarchical nor segregated in Hindu society of Bali or Java. Further, there was social mobility - people could change their occupation and caste if they wished to.
Both Java and Sumatra were subject to considerable cultural influence from the Indian subcontinent. The earliest evidences of Hindu influences in Java can be found in 4th century Tarumanagara inscriptions scattered around modern Jakarta and Bogor.
In the sixth and seventh centuries many maritime kingdoms arose in Sumatra and Java which controlled the waters in the Straits of Malacca and flourished with the increasing sea trade between China and India and beyond. During this time, scholars from India and China visited these kingdoms to translate literary and religious texts. This era is popularly known as the Javanese Classical Era, during which Hindu-Buddhist literature, art and architecture flourished and were incorporated into local culture under royal patronage.
During this time, many Hindu temples were built, including 9th century Prambanan near Yogyakarta , which has been designated a World Heritage Site.
Among these Hindu kingdoms, Majapahit kingdom was the largest and the last significant Hindu kingdom in Indonesian history. Majapahit was based in East Java, from where it ruled a large part of what is now Indonesia. The remnants of the Majapahit kingdom shifted to Bali during the sixteenth century after a prolonged war by and territorial losses to Islamic sultanates.
The heritage of Hinduism left a significant impact and imprint in Javanese art and culture. The wayang puppet performance as well as wayang wong dance and other Javanese classical dances are derived from episodes of Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. Although the majority of Javanese now identify as Muslim, these art forms still survive. Hinduism has survived in varying degrees and forms on Java; in recent years, conversions to Hinduism have been on the rise, particularly in regions surrounding a major Hindu religious site, such as the Klaten region near the Prambanan temple.
Certain ethnic groups, such as the Tenggerese and Osing , are also associated with Hindu religious traditions. The Tengger community follows a Hindu tradition stretching back to the Majapahit Empire. There are strong similarities between the Hinduism in Bali and the Tengger variety; both are called Hindu Dharma.
However, the Tengger variety does not have a caste system and the Tengger people's traditions are based on those originating from the Majapahit era. For the Tengger, Mount Bromo Brahma is believed to be a holy mountain. Every year the Tengger hold a ritual known as Yadnya kasada. Pura Luhur Poten The temple holds a significant importance to the Tenggerese..
The temple organises the annual Yadnya Kasada ceremony. In spite of the Dutch attempts to propagate Islam and Christianity among the Osings, many still stuck to their old beliefs. Today, a large Hindu population still exists among the Osings. The Osings share a similar culture and spirit with the Balinese , and the Hindus celebrate ceremonies like Nyepi.
Just like the Balinese people , the Osing people also share the puputan tradition. The Osing people differs from the Balinese people in terms of social stratification. The Osing people does not practice caste system like the Balinese people , even though if they are Hindus.
Among the non-Balinese communities considered to be Hindu by the government are, for example, the Dayak adherents of the Kaharingan religion in Kalimantan Tengah , where government statistics counted Hindus as Many Manusela and Nuaulu people of Seram follow Naurus, a syncretism of Hinduism with animist and Protestant elements. The Batak of Sumatra have identified their animist traditions with Hinduism. Among the minority Indian ethnic group, Tamils and Punjabis of Medan, Sumatra and the Sindhis in Jakarta practice their own form of Hinduism which is similar to the Indian Hinduism, the Indians celebrating Hindu holidays more commonly found in India, such as Deepavali and Thaipusam  The Bodha sect of Sasak people on the island of Lombok are non-Muslim; their religion is a fusion of Hinduism and Buddhism with animism; it is considered Buddhist by the government.
In parts of Samarinda and Lombok especially Cakranegara , Nyepi is celebrated. About half of the people of the small island of Tanimbarkei kei ,practice a variant of the Hindu religion, which involves a form of ancestoral worship. The tiny island of Tanimbarkei is not part of Tanimbar, as the name might suggest, but is one of the Kai Islands.
It is inhabited by fewer than very traditional people. In its studies stated that there are 10,, Hindus in Indonesia. According to the Census, there were a total of 4,, Hindus in Indonesia,  compared to 3,, Hindus in Census. While the absolute number of Hindus increased, the relative percentage of Hindus in Indonesia decreased from to because of lower birth rates among the Hindu population compared to the Muslim population.
The average number of births per Hindu woman varied between 1. According to the census, Hindus made up 1. Bali had the highest concentration of Hindus with The percentage of Hindus in the total population declined from the census, and this is largely attributed to lower birth rates and immigration of Muslims from Java into provinces with high Hindu populations.
In Central Kalimantan there has been progressive settlement of Madurese from Madura. A common feature among new Hindu communities in Java is that they tend to rally around recently built temples pura or around archaeological temple sites candi which are being reclaimed as places of Hindu worship.
Semeru , Java's highest mountain. When the temple was completed in July , with the generous aid of wealthy donors from Bali, only a few local families formally confessed to Hinduism.
A pilot study in December revealed that the local Hindu community now has grown to more than households. Similar mass conversions have occurred in the region around Pura Agung Blambangan, another new temple, built on a site with minor archaeological remnants attributed to the kingdom of Blambangan , the last Hindu polity on Java. A further important site is Pura Loka Moksa Jayabaya in the village of Menang near Kediri , where the Hindu king and prophet Jayabaya is said to have achieved spiritual liberation moksa.
A further Hindu movement in the earliest stages of development was observed in the vicinity of the newly completed Pura Pucak Raung in the Eastern Javanese district of Glenmore , which is mentioned in Balinese literature as the place where the Hindu saint Maharishi Markandeya gathered followers for an expedition to Bali, whereby he is said to have brought Hinduism to the island in the fifth century AD. An example of resurgence around major archaeological remains of ancient Hindu temple sites was observed in Trowulan near Mojokerto.
The site may be the location of the capital of the Hindu empire Majapahit. A local Hindu movement is struggling to gain control of a newly excavated temple building which they wish to see restored as a site of active Hindu worship. The temple is to be dedicated to Gajah Mada, the man attributed with transforming the small Hindu kingdom of Majapahit into an empire. In Karanganyar region in Central Java, the renovated 14th century Cetho temple on the slope of Mount Lawu has become the center of Javanese Hinduism and gain patronage of Balinese temples and royal houses.
A new temple is being built East of Solo Surakarta. It is a Hindu temple that has miniatures of 50 sacred sites around the world. It is also an active kundalini yoga meditation center teaching the sacred Javanese tradition of sun and water meditation.
There are many westerners as well as Javanese joining in. Although there has been a more pronounced history of resistance to Islamization in East Java, Hindu communities are also expanding in Central Java Lyon , for example in Klaten , near the ancient Hindu monuments of Prambanan.
PT Hindo Gandaria 8 - Office Tower 21st Floor, Unit A Jakarta Selatan Indonesia. Phone: +62 21 Contact Form. Your local Customer Service team is always ready to help! Whatever your question is, please don't hesitate to give us a call, or send an email. For an easy and quick way to find what you're looking for, please . Balinese Hinduism Bali, one of Indonesia's major tourist attractions, is not only famous for its beautiful beaches, landscape and rice fields but also for its unique cultural tradition: a Balinese Hindu tradition that mainly consists of art and ritual. Indonesia's primary tourist destination doesn't subscribe to the mainstream religion of the nation, with nearly 90 percent of Bali residents identifying as Hindu.